Morellet Nicolas

Nicolas Morellet (Ingénieur de Recherche)

Écologie du mouvement des grands herbivores sauvages


Nicolas Morellet

CEFS (Comportement et Ecologie de la Faune Sauvage)

U.R. I.N.R.A. 0035
24 Chemin de Borde Rouge, Auzeville, CS 52627
31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France.

Tél.: 33(0) 5 61 28 51 28




PhD (1998) University Claude-Bernard - Lyon I, France

“Biometrics tools to monitor animal populations: deer as an example. Toward a browsing index”


Research questions

I work on the behaviour and movement ecology of wild large herbivores, to better understand their movements and habitat selection at different spatial and temporal scales. The movement plays a major role in determining the fate of individuals. Individuals move from birth to death, and all movements of different importance sum over the course of an organism’s life cycle to produce a lifetime track. I am particularly interested to understand what lead individuals to move all over his life and the inter-individual variation in movement ecology.

To be able to study animal movement, I participate to a large-scale capture-mark-recapture programme of roe deer in a rural agricultural setting in south-west France, in which most captured individuals are equipped with GPS collars. In this context, I am particularly involved in the collaborative project named Eurodeer ( It is an open project supporting a collaborative process of data sharing to produce better science. It is based on a spatial database that stores shared movement data on roe deer to explore how large-scale environmental gradients and, by extension, global change impact the behaviour and ecology of wild herbivores.

I am also concerned by the monitoring and the management of large herbivores, and then I am working on the development of new approaches like the indicators of ecological change.




In press

Bonnot, N.C.,Goulard, M., Hewison, A.J.M., Cargnelutti, B., Lourtet, B., Chaval, Y., Morellet, N.

Boldness-mediated habitat use tactics and reproductive success in a wild large herbivore. Animal Behaviour.



Couriot, O., Hewison, A.J.M., Saïd, S., Cagnacci, F., Chamaillé-Jammes, S., Linnell, J.D.C., Mysterud, A., Peters, W., Urbano, F., Heurich, M., Kjellander, P., Nicoloso, S., Berger, A., Sustr, P., Kroeschel, M., Soennichsen, L., Sandfort, R., Gehr, B., Morellet, N. (2018). Truly sedentary? The multi-range tactic as a response to resource heterogeneity and unpredictability in a large herbivore. Oecologia 187, 47–60.

Dalhoumi, R., Morellet, N., Aissa, P., Aulagnier, S. (2018). Seasonal activity pattern and habitat use by the Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) in an arid environment. European Journal of Wildlife Research 64.

Gaudry, W., Gaillard, J.-M., Saïd, S., Bonenfant, C., Mysterud, A., Morellet, N. Pellerin, M., Calenge, C. (2018). Same habitat types but different use: evidence of context-dependent habitat selection in roe deer across populations. Scientific Reports 8.

Martin, J., Tolon, V.,Morellet, N., Santin-Janin, H., Licoppe, A., Fischer, C., Bombois, J., Patthey, P., Pesenti, E., Chenesseau, D., Saïd, S. (2018). Common drivers of seasonal movements on the migration – residency behavior continuum in a large herbivore. Scientific Reports 8.

Martin, J., Vourc’h, G., Bonnot, N., Cargnelutti, B., Chaval, Y., Lourtet, B., Goulard, M., Hoch, T., Plantard, O., Hewison, A.J.M.,Morellet, N. (2018). Temporal shifts in landscape connectivity for an ecosystem engineer, the roe deer, across a multiple-use landscape. Landscape Ecology 33, 937–954.

Navarro-Gonzalez, N., Castillo-Contreras, R., Casas-Díaz, E., Morellet, N., Concepción Porrero, M., Molina-Vacas, G., Torres, R.T., Fonseca, C., Mentaberre, G., Domínguez, L., Lavín, S., Serrano, E. (2018). Carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in urban versus rural wild boars. European Journal of Wildlife Research 64.

Péron, G., Duparc, A., Garel, M., Marchand, P., Morellet, N., Saïd, S., Loison, A. (2018). Circadian periodicity in space use by ungulates of temperate regions: How much, when and why? Journal of Animal Ecology.

Peters, W., Hebblewhite, M., Mysterud, A., Eacker, D., Hewison, A.J.M., Linnell, J.D.C., Focardi, S., Urbano, F., Groeve, J.D., Gehr, B., Heurich, M., Jarnemo, A., Kjellander, P., Kröschel, M., Morellet, N., Pedrotti, L., Reinecke, H., Sandfort, R., Sönnichsen, L., Sunde, P., Cagnacci, F. (2018). Large herbivore migration plasticity along environmental gradients in Europe: life-history traits modulate forage effects. Oikos.

Tucker, M.A., Boehning-Gaese, K., Fagan, W.F., Fryxell, J.M., Van Moorter, B., Alberts, S.C., Ali, A.H., Allen, A.M., Attias, N., Avgar, T., Bartlam-Brooks, H., Bayarbaatar, B., Belant, J.L., Bertassoni, A., Beyer, D., Bidner, L., van Beest, F.M., Blake, S., Blaum, N., Bracis, C., Brown, D., de Bruyn, P.J.N., Cagnacci, F., Calabrese, J.M., Camilo-Alves, C., Chamaille-Jammes, S., Chiaradia, A., Davidson, S.C., Dennis, T., DeStefano, S., Diefenbach, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Fennessy, J., Fichtel, C., Fiedler, W., Fischer, C., Fischhoff, I., Fleming, C.H., Ford, A.T., Fritz, S.A., Gehr, B., Goheen, J.R., Gurarie, E., Hebblewhite, M., Heurich, M., Hewison, A.J.M., Hof, C., Hurme, E., Isbell, L.A., Janssen, R., Jeltsch, F., Kaczensky, P., Kane, A., Kappeler, P.M., Kauffman, M., Kays, R., Kimuyu, D., Koch, F., Kranstauber, B., LaPoint, S., Leimgruber, P., Linnell, J.D.C., Lopez-Lopez, P., Markham, A.C., Mattisson, J., Medici, E.P., Mellone, U., Merrill, E., Mourao, G. de M., Morato, R.G., Morellet, N., Morrison, T.A., Diaz-Munoz, S.L., Mysterud, A., Nandintsetseg, D., Nathan, R., Niamir, A., Odden, J., O’Hara, R.B., Oliveira-Santos, L.G.R., Olson, K.A., Patterson, B.D., de Paula, R.C., Pedrotti, L., Reineking, B., Rimmler, M., Rogers, T.L., Rolandsen, C.M., Rosenberry, C.S., Rubenstein, D.I., Safi, K., Said, S., Sapir, N., Sawyer, H., Schmidt, N.M., Selva, N., Sergiel, A., Shiilegdamba, E., Silva, J.P., Singh, N., Solberg, E.J., Spiegel, O., Strand, O., Sundaresan, S., Ullmann, W., Voigt, U., Wall, J., Wattles, D., Wikelski, M., Wilmers, C.C., Wilson, J.W., Wittemyer, G., Zieba, F., Zwijacz-Kozica, T., Mueller, T. (2018). Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science 359, 466–469.



Bonnot, N.C., Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N., Gaillard, J.-M., Debeffe, L., Couriot, O., Cargnelutti, B., Chaval, Y., Lourtet, B., Kjellander, P., Vanpé, C. (2017). Stick or twist: roe deer adjust their flight behaviour to the perceived trade-off between risk and reward. Animal Behaviour 124, 35–46.

Dalhoumi, R., Morellet, N., Aissa, P., Aulagnier, S. (2017). Seasonal activity pattern and habitat use by the Isabelline serotine bat (Eptesicus isabellinus) in an arid environment of Tunisia. Acta Chiropterologica 19, 141–153.

Monestier, C., Morellet, N., Verheyden, H., Gaillard, J.-M., Bideau, E., Denailhac, A., Lourtet, B., Cebe, N., Picot, D., Rames, J.-L., Hewison, A.J.M. (2017). Neophobia is linked to behavioural and haematological indicators of stress in captive roe deer. Animal Behaviour 126, 135–143.

Ossi, F., Gaillard, J.-M., Hebblewhite, M., Morellet, N., Ranc, N., Sandfort, R., Kroeschel, M., Kjellander, P., Mysterud, A., Linnell, J.D.C., Heurich, M., Soennichsen, L., Sustr, P., Berger, A., Rocca, M., Urbano, F., Cagnacci, F. (2017). Plastic response by a small cervid to supplemental feeding in winter across a wide environmental gradient. Ecosphere 8, e01629.

Peters, W., Hebblewhite, M., Mysterud, A., Spitz, D., Focardi, S., Urbano, F., Morellet, N., Heurich, M., Kjellander, P., Linnell, J.D.C., Cagnacci, F. (2017). Migration in geographic and ecological space by a large herbivore. Ecol Monogr 87, 297–320.



Bonnot, N.C., Morellet, N., Hewison, A.J.M., Martin, J.-L., Benhamou, S., Chamaillé-Jammes, S. (2016). Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) adjust habitat selection and activity rhythm to the absence of predators. Canadian Journal of Zoology 94, 385–394.

Monestier, C., Gilot-Fromont, E., Morellet, N., Debeffe, L., Cebe, N., Merlet, J., Picot, D., Rames, J.-L., Hewison, A.J.M., Verheyden, H. (2016). Individual variation in an acute stress response reflects divergent coping strategies in a large herbivore. Behav. Processes 132, 22–28.

Vanpe, C., Debeffe, L., Galan, M., Hewison, A.J.M., Gaillard, J.-M., Gilot-Fromont, E., Morellet, N., Verheyden, H., Cosson, J.-F., Cargnelutti, B., Merlet, J., Quemere, E. (2016). Immune gene variability influences roe deer natal dispersal. Oikos 125, 1790–1801.



Bonnot, N., Verheyden, H., Blanchard, P., Cote, J., Debeffe, L., Cargnelutti, B., Klein, F., Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N. (2015). Interindividual variability in habitat use: evidence for a risk management syndrome in roe deer? Behavioral Ecology 26, 105–114.

Debeffe, L., Lemaître, J.F., Bergvall, U.A., Hewison, A.J.M., Gaillard, J.M., Morellet, N., Goulard, M., Monestier, C., David, M., Verheyden-Tixier, H., Jäderberg, L., Vanpé, C., Kjellander, P. (2015). Short- and long-term repeatability of docility in the roe deer: sex and age matter. Animal Behaviour 109, 53–63.

Monestier, C., Morellet, N., Gaillard, J.-M., Cargnelutti, B., Vanpé, C., Hewison, A.J.M. (2015). Is a proactive mum a good mum? A mother’s coping style influences early fawn survival in roe deer. Behavioral Ecology 26, 1395–1403.

Padie, S., Morellet, N., Cargnelutti, B., Hewison, A.J.M., Martin, J.L., Chamaille-Jammes, S. (2015). Time to leave? Immediate response of roe deer to experimental disturbances using playbacks. European Journal of Wildlife Research 61, 871–879.

Padie, S., Morellet, N., Hewison, A.J.M., Martin, J.L., Bonnot, N., Cargnelutti, B., Chamaille-Jammes, S. (2015). Roe deer at risk: teasing apart habitat selection and landscape constraints in risk exposure at multiple scales. Oikos 124, 1536–1546.



Debeffe, Lucie, Focardi, S., Bonenfant, C., Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N., Vanpé, C., Heurich, M., Kjellander, P., Linnell, J.C., Mysterud, A., Pellerin, M., Sustr, P., Urbano, F., Cagnacci, F. (2014). A one night stand? Reproductive excursions of female roe deer as a breeding dispersal tactic. Oecologia 176, 431-443 LA-English.

Debeffe, L., Morellet, N., Bonnot, N., Gaillard, J.M., Cargnelutti, B., Verheyden-Tixier, H., Vanpé, C., Coulon, A., Clobert, J., Bon, R., Hewison, A.J.M. (2014). The link between behavioural type and natal dispersal propensity reveals a dispersal syndrome in a large herbivore. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281.

Debeffe, Lucie, Morellet, N., Verheyden-Tixier, H., Hoste, H., Gaillard, J.-M., Cargnelutti, B., Picot, D., Sevila, J., Hewison, A.J.M. (2014). Parasite abundance contributes to condition-dependent dispersal in a wild population of large herbivore. Oikos 1121–1125.

Le Saout, S., Padie, S., Chamaille-Jammes, S., Chollet, S., Cote, S., Morellet, N., Pattison, J., Harris, E., Martin, J.L. (2014). Short-term effects of hunting on naive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis): behavioural response and consequences on vegetation growth. Canadian Journal of Zoology 92, 915–925.

Le Saout, S., Padie, S., Chamaille-Jammes, S., Chollet, S., Cote, S.D., Morellet, N., Pattison, J., Harris, E., Martin, J.L. (2015). Short-term effects of hunting on naive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis): behavioural response and consequences on vegetation growth. Canadian Journal of Zoology 93, 85–85.



Bonnot, N., Morellet, N., Verheyden, H., Cargnelutti, B., Lourtet, B., Klein, F., Hewison, A.J.M. (2013). Habitat use under predation risk: hunting, roads and human dwellings influence the spatial behaviour of roe deer. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 59, 185–193.

Debeffe, L., Morellet, N., Cargnelutti, B., Lourtet, B., Coulon, A., Gaillard, J.M., Bon, R., Hewison, A.J.M. (2013). Exploration as a key component of natal dispersal: dispersers explore more than philopatric individuals in roe deer. Animal Behaviour 86, 143–151.

Morellet, N., Bonenfant, C., Börger, L., Ossi, F., Cagnacci, F., Heurich, M., Kjellander, P., Linnell, J.D.C., Nicoloso, S., Sustr, P., Urbano, F., Mysterud, A. (2013). Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe. J Anim Ecol 82, 1326–1339.



Abbas, F., Merlet, J., Morellet, N., Verheyden, H., Hewison, A.J.M., Cargnelutti, B., Angibault, J.M., Picot, D., Rames, J.L., Lourtet, B., Aulagnier, S., Daufresne, T. (2012). Roe deer may markedly alter forest nitrogen and phosphorus budgets across Europe. Oikos 121, 1271–1278.

Debeffe, L., Morellet, N., Cargnelutti, B., Lourtet, B., Bon, R., Gaillard, J.M., Hewison, A.J.M. (2012). Condition-dependent natal dispersal in a large herbivore: heavier animals show a greater propensity to disperse and travel further. J. Anim. Ecol. 81, 1327–1337.



Abbas, F., Morellet, N., Hewison, A.J.M., Merlet, J., Cargnelutti, B., Lourtet, B., Angibault, J.-M., Daufresne, T., Aulagnier, S., Verheyden, H. (2011). Landscape fragmentation generates spatial variation of diet composition and quality in a generalist herbivore. Oecologia 167, 401–411.

Cagnacci, F., Focardi, S., Heurich, M., Stache, A., Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N., Kjellander, P., Linnell, J.D.C., Mysterud, A., Neteler, M., Delucchi, L., Ossi, F., Urbano, F. (2011). Partial migration in roe deer: migratory and resident tactics are end points of a behavioural gradient determined by ecological factors. Oikos 120, 1790–1802.

Cornelis, D., Benhamou, S., Janeau, G., Morellet, N., Ouedraogo, M., De Visscher, M.-N. (2011). The spatiotemporal segregation of limiting resources shapes space use patterns of West African savanna buffalo. Journal of Mammalogy 92, 1287–1297.

Morellet, N., Klein, F., Solberg, E., Andersen, R. (2011). The census and management of populations of ungulates in Europe, in: Putman, R.J., Apollonio, M., Andersen, R. (Eds.), Ungulate Management in Europe - Problems and Practices. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 106–143.

Morellet, N., Van Moorter, B., Cargnelutti, B., Angibault, J.M., Lourtet, B., Merlet, J., Ladet, S., Hewison, A.J.M. (2011). Landscape composition influences roe deer habitat selection at both home range and landscape scales. Landscape Ecology 26, 999–1010.



Delattre, P., Morellet, N., Codreanu, P., Miot, S., Quéré, J.-P., Sennedot, F., Baudry, J. (2009). Influence of edge effects on common vole population abundance in an agricultural landscape of eastern France. Acta Theriologica 54, 51–60.

Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N., Verheyden, H., Daufresne, T., Angibault, J.M., Cargnelutti, B., Merlet, J., Picot, D., Rames, J.L., Joachim, J., Lourtet, B., Serrano, E., Bideau, E., Cebe, N. (2009). Landscape fragmentation influences winter body mass of roe deer. Ecography 32, 1062–1070.

Morellet, N., Verheyden, H., Angibault, J.-M., Cargnelutti, B., Lourtet, B., Hewison, A.J.M. (2009). The effect of capture on ranging behaviour and activity of the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus. Wildlife Biol. 15, 278–287.

Pepin, D., Morellet, N., Goulard, M. (2009). Seasonal and daily walking activity patterns of free-ranging adult red deer (Cervus elaphus) at the individual level. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 55, 479–486.

Vanpé, C., Gaillard, J.M., Morellet, N., Kjellander, P., Liberg, O., Delorme, D., Hewison, A.J.M. (2009). Age-specific variation in male breeding success of a territorial ungulate species, the European roe deer. Journal of Mammalogy 90, 661–665.

Vanpé, C., Morellet, N., Kjellander, P., Goulard, M., Liberg, O., Hewison, A.J.M. (2009). Access to mates in a territorial ungulate is determined by the size of a male’s territory, but not by its habitat quality. Journal of Animal Ecology 78, 42–51.



Benhaiem, S., Delon, M., Lourtet, B., Cargnelutti, B., Aulagnier, S., Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N., Verheyden, H. (2008). Hunting increases vigilance levels in roe deer and modifies feeding site selection. Animal Behaviour 76, 611–618.

Coulon, A., Morellet, N., Goulard, M., Cargnelutti, B., Angibault, J.M., Hewison, A.J.M. (2008). Inferring the effects of landscape structure on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) movements using a step selection function. Landscape Ecology 23, 603–614.

Verheyden-Tixier, H., Renaud, P.C., Morellet, N., Jamot, J., Besle, J.-M., Dumont, B. (2008). Selection for nutrients by red deer hinds feeding on a mixed forest edge. Oecologia 156, 715–726.



Cargnelutti, B., Coulon, A., Hewison, A.J.M., Goulard, M., Angibault, J.M., Morellet, N. (2007). Testing GPS performance for wildlife monitoring using mobile collars with known reference points. Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 1380–1387.

Hewison, A.J.M., Angibault, J.-M., Cargnelutti, B., Coulon, A., Rames, J.-L., Serrano, E., Verheyden, H., Morellet, N. (2007). Using radio-tracking and direct observation to estimate roe deer Capreolus capreolus density in a fragmented landscape: a pilot study. Wildlife Biology 13, 313–320.[313:URADOT]2.0.CO;2

Morellet, N., Gaillard, J.M., Hewison, A.J.M., Ballon, P., Boscardin, Y., Duncan, P., Klein, F., Maillard, D. (2007). Indicators of ecological change: new tools for managing populations of large herbivores. Journal of Applied Ecology 44, 634–643.

Richard, E., Morellet, N., Cargnelutti, B., Angibault, J.M., Vanpé, C., Hewison, A.J.M. (2008). Ranging behaviour and excursions of female roe deer during the rut. Behavioural Processes 79, 28–35.

Schaefer, J.A., Morellet, N., Pepin, D., Verheyden, H. (2008). The spatial scale of habitat selection by red deer. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 86, 1337–1345.

Serrano, E., Alpizar-Jara, R., Morellet, N., Hewison, A.J.M. (2008). A half a century of measuring ungulate body condition using indices: is it time for a change? European Journal of Wildlife Research 54, 675–680.



Coulon, A., Cosson, J.F., Morellet, N., Angibault, J.M., Cargnelutti, B., Galan, M., Aulagnier, S., Hewison, A.J.M. (2006). Dispersal is not female biased in a resource defence mating ungulate, the European roe deer. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 273, 341–348.

Toïgo, C., Gaillard, J.-M., Van Laere, G., Hewison, A.J.M., Morellet, N. (2006). How does environmental variation influence body mass, body size and body condition? Roe deer as a case study. Ecography 29, 301–308.

Zannèse, A., Baïsse, A., Gaillard, J.-M., Hewison, A.J.M., Saint-Hilaire, K., Toïgo, C., Van Laere, G., Morellet, N. (2006). Hind foot length: a new biological indicator for monitoring roe deer populations at a landscape scale. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34, 351–358.[351:HFLAIF]2.0.CO;2

Zannèse, A., Morellet, N., Targhetta, C., Coulon, A., Fuser, S., Hewison, A.J.M., Ramanzin, M. (2006). Spatial structure of roe deer populations: towards defining management units at a landscape scale. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 1087–1097.



Berger, F., Morellet, N., Menu, F., Potier, P. (1996). Cold shock and cold acclimation proteins in the psychrotrophic bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis SI55. Journal of Bacteriology 178, 2999–3007.

Coulon, A., Cosson, J.F., Angibault, J.M., Cargnelutti, B., Galan, M., Morellet, N., Petit, E., Aulagnier, S., Hewison, A.J.M. (2004). Landscape connectivity influences gene flow in a roe deer population inhabiting a fragmented landscape: an individual–based approach. Molecular Ecology 13, 2841–2850.

Cransac, N., Cibien, C., Angibault, J.M., Morellet, N., Vincent, J.P., Hewison, A.J.M. (2001). Variations saisonnières du régime alimentaire du chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus) selon le sexe en milieu forestier à forte densité (forêt domaniale de Dourdan). Mammalia 65, 1–12.

Dumont, B., Renaud, P.C., Morellet, N., Mallet, C., Anglard, F., Verheyden-Tixier, H. (2005). Seasonal variations of red deer selectivity on a mixed forest edge. Animal Research 54, 369–381.

Maillard, D., Morellet, N., Gaudin, J.C. (1999). Variation saisonnière du domaine vital et sélectivité de l’habitat par le chevreuil en milieu méditerranéen : cas d’une femelle et d’un mâle adultes. Revue d’Ecologie - La Terre et la Vie 54, 71–87.

Morellet, N., Ballon, P., Boscardin, Y., Champely, S. (2003). A new index to measure roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) browsing pressure on woody flora. Game and Wildlife Science 20, 155–173.

Morellet, N., Champely, S., Gaillard, J.-M., Ballon, P., Boscardin, Y. (2001). The browsing index: new tool uses browsing pressure to monitor deer populations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29, 1243–1252.

Morellet, N., Guibert, B. (1999). Spatial heterogeneity of winter forest resources used by deer. Forest Ecology and Management 123, 11–20.



Boscardin, Y., Morellet, N. (2007). L’indice de consommation : outil de suivi des populations de chevreuils à partir de l’examen de la flore lignifiée. Rendez-vous techniques de l’ONF 16, 5–12.

Cargnelutti, B., Debeffe, L., Morellet, N. (2014). Contributions des GPS et du SIG pour l’étude du comportement animal : illustration avec l’étude de la dispersion natale du jeune chevreuil en agro-écosystème. Le cahier des techniques de l’INRA Spécial GéoExpé, 159–165.

Ménoni, E., Maillard, D., Verheyden, H., Morellet, N., Larrieu, L., Constantin, E., Saint-Hilaire, K., Dubreuil, D. (2008). Cerf, troupeaux domestiques : quels impacts sur l’habitat des galliformes de montagne ? Faune sauvage 281, 32–39.

Morellet, N. (2008). La gestion des grands herbivores par les indicateurs de changement écologique. Faune sauvage 282, 9–18.

Morellet, N., Guibert, B., Klein, F., Demolis, C.H. (1996). Utilisation de l’habitat forestier par le cerf (Cervus elaphus) dans le massif d’Is-sur-Tille (Côte d’or). Gibier Faune Sauvage 13, 1477–1493.

Date de modification : 07 juin 2023 | Date de création : 30 octobre 2015 | Rédaction : YC